Detailed recruitment procedures for unclassified and classified staff are available in the Unit Head Handbook on the Human Resources web page.
UNCLASSIFIED – Recruitment of unclassified staff is governed by procedures approved by the Board of Trustees. Details are available in the Department of Human Resources and on the Human Resources web page under Policies and Procedures, Hiring Procedures for Unclassified Staff
CLASSIFIED – Recruitment of classified staff is governed by New Jersey Civil Service Commission certification procedures. Details are available in the Department of Human Resources and on the Human Resources web page under Policies and Procedures, Hiring Procedures for Classified Staff
Students may apply for posted vacancies for which they qualify and will be considered for employment opportunities along with other eligible candidates. Students employed under the Student Aide or College Work Study programs are limited in the number of hours they are permitted to work and should be guided by policies and procedures administered by the Cahill Center for Experiential Learning and Career Services, https://www.ramapo.edu/careercenter/
COLLEGE WORK SCHEDULES
1. BUSINESS HOURS
All College offices are generally open each weekday, twelve months each year, between the hours of 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM. Unit heads may schedule additional hours of operation depending upon their respective needs. Except where operational needs dictate otherwise, any deviation from the normal work schedule must be approved through the Flexible Work Arrangements policy.
2. SUMMER SCHEDULE
Normally during the summer, subject to the President’s approval, the College will operate on a “four day work week” schedule, between the hours of 8:00 AM to 5:15 PM, and most offices will close on Fridays. Specific details of the summer schedule are issued each spring.
3. STATE HOLIDAYS
- New Year’s Day
- Martin Luther King’s Birthday (third Monday in January)
- Presidents’ Day (third Monday in February)
- Good Friday
- Memorial Day (last Monday in May)
- Independence Day
- Labor Day
- Columbus Day (second Monday in October)
- Election Day
- Veteran’s Day (November 11)
- Thanksgiving Day
- Christmas Day
In order to receive compensation for a holiday, employees must be in pay status the day before the holiday.
All full-time non-faculty employees are entitled to these holidays.
In the event any of the above legal holidays fall on a Sunday, they are celebrated on the following Monday.
In the event any of the above legal holidays fall on a Saturday, they are celebrated on the preceding Friday.
This holiday schedule may be modified by Executive Order of the Governor.
College classes may be held on some of these holidays.
Unit heads are requested to review operational requirements to determine the effect of closing their respective offices on these holidays. Requests to keep staff on duty must be made to the Department of Human Resources.
Employees should be guided by their collective bargaining unit agreement or by procedures established within their work unit.
Generally, fixed work-week employees are entitled to a paid fifteen-minute rest period during each one-half shift. In addition, an unpaid lunch period of one hour is provided.
Relief breaks may not be combined or accumulated or taken at the end of the work day for early dismissal.
Whenever an employee is delayed in reporting to work, he/she should contact the supervisor in advance. If the employee is unable to reach his/her supervisor, a message should be left with the unit secretary unless otherwise specified by unit policy. Chronic lateness may be cause for disciplinary action.
The following is the approved Ramapo College of New Jersey policy regarding snow emergency and employee attendance:
1. All employees are expected to be in attendance at work at all times specified by a prearranged schedule of work hours.
a. All employees may be excused from work only by the President for reasons of weather or other emergency. In such cases, accrued leave credits will not be charged. If an employee has an already excused absence (vacation, leave, etc.) during an unplanned college closing they will be charged with the previously requested benefit time.
b. Absences from work may be excused by supervisors consistent with standing policy for individual employees for individual reasons. In such cases, accrued leave will be charged.
c. Some employees may be required to work to provide essential services. These employees will generally be notified of this requirement in advance by supervisory personnel. Depending on the conditions at the time, others may be notified by telephone.
d. Employees who are required to work to provide essential services will be paid at regular rates for all hours of their regular work shift and at premium rates thereafter in accordance with contractual agreements.
2. Independently of the question of employee attendance, the President of the College may determine that College classes shall be canceled. In such cases:
a. All employees are expected to be in attendance at work.
b. Accrued leave credits will be charged, consistent with standing policy, for individual employee absences.
c. The College will use Alert Me Now and post to College website to announce the cancellation of classes.
If there are questions concerning this Emergency Closings Policy, please contact the Department of Human Resources.
Closing information will be provided to the radio stations listed below:
www.ramapo.edu – announcements will be posted as available
Phone / Text / Email
Alert Me Now – Those who have signed up for Alert Me Now will receive messages as available.
You should be guided by instruction for Ramapo College faculty and staff and students, not State office closing ordered by the Governor.
Telephone Announcement Line – 201-236-2902
College closing information will be on this line during inclement weather and other emergencies.
Closing information will also be posted on our web page.
During complete closings of the College (offices closed, classes canceled), a sign will be placed by the Public Safety Booth at the main entrance to the campus.
POLICIES REGARDING ABSENCES
1. VACATION LEAVE
Non-teaching unclassified employees shall accrue 1.5 days of vacation credit for each full month of service from the date of appointment through December 31 of the year in which appointment occurs. For each succeeding calendar year thereafter, unclassified employees shall accrue 22 days vacation credited at the beginning of the calendar year.
Non-teaching, ten-month, unclassified employees shall accrue 1.5 days vacation credit for each full month of service from date of appointment through June 30 of year hired. For each academic year thereafter, said employees shall accrue 18 days vacation credited at the beginning of the academic year.
Managerial employees on a 12-month contract employed after July 1 shall accrue 1.83 days credit for each full month of employment from the date of appointment through June 30 of the fiscal year in which appointment occurs and 22 days per fiscal year thereafter. For each succeeding fiscal year thereafter, managerial employees shall accrue 22 days vacation credited at the beginning of the fiscal year.
Ten-month managerial employees are entitled to 1.8 days per month, or 18 days per fiscal year thereafter.
Classified staff are credited with vacation leave as follows:
- One working day of vacation for each full month of service from the date of appointment through December 31 of the year in which appointment occurs.
- Twelve working days of vacation from 1 and up to 5 years of service.
- Fifteen working days of vacation after 5 years and up to 12 years of service.
- Twenty working days of vacation after 12 and up to 20 years of service.
- Twenty-five working days of vacation after the 20th year of service.
Vacation may be scheduled and used in fifteen (15) minute intervals.
Permission to use vacation time is subject to the operational needs of the College and the permission of the employee’s supervisor requested in advance.
Vacation allowance must be taken during the current year (calendar year for bargaining unit staff, fiscal year for managerial staff and academic year for 10-month staff) at such time as permitted or directed by the College, unless the College determines that it cannot be taken because of pressure of work. Employees may request a maximum of one year of earned vacation allowance to be carried forward into the next succeeding year only (calendar year for bargaining unit staff, fiscal year for managerial staff and academic year for 10-month staff).
Keeping vacation leave balances low reduces the College’s reserve requirement and frees up funds to be used for operating expenses. Using vacation leave balances in the year earned is encouraged.
During the first year of employment, vacation may only be used as it is accrued. Not until January 1 of the second calendar year of employment (July 1 for managers, September 1 for ten-month staff) is the full year’s vacation allowance credited in advance. If an employee separates from the College having used unearned vacation leave, adjustments will be made in the final paycheck.
A permanent employee who returns from military service is entitled to full vacation allowance for the calendar year of return and for the year preceding, provided the latter can be taken during the year of return.
2. SICK LEAVE
Sick leave may be used when employees are unable to perform their work because of personal illness, accident, or exposure to contagious disease. Sick leave may be used because of death in the employee’s immediate family. Sick leave may be used to care for an ill family member in accordance with the Federal Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) and as amended in 2008, as well as the State Family Leave Act (FLA). (Additional details are available in the Department of Human Resources, including definition of “immediate family.”)
Proof of injury or illness may be required when there is reason to believe there is abuse, an employee has been absent for five or more consecutive work days, or an employee has been absent on sick leave for more than an aggregate of more than 15 days in a 12-month period.
The employee is required to notify his/her supervisor of the absence due to illness at the earliest possible time, but in no event less than the usual reporting time.
All faculty in their first year of employment accumulate 1.25 days per month and thereafter a total of 12.5 days per year, credited at the beginning of the academic year.
Non-teaching professionals on a 12-month contract employed after January 1 shall accrue 1.25 days per month for their first year of employment and thereafter 15 days per calendar year credited at the beginning of the calendar year. Ten-month employees shall accrue 12.5 days per calendar year pro-rated for the first year and credited at the beginning of the academic year.
Managerial employees on a 12-month contract employed after July 1 shall accrue 1.25 sick days per month for their first year of employment and thereafter 15 days per fiscal year credited at the beginning of the fiscal year. Ten-month managerial employees shall accrue 12.5 sick days per fiscal year, pro-rated for the first year and credited at the beginning of the fiscal year.
Full-time classified employees in their first calendar year of employment earn one sick day per month and 15 days in every calendar year thereafter, credited at the beginning of the calendar year.
Any amount of sick leave allowance not used in any calendar year shall accumulate to the employee’s credit from year to year to be used when needed for such purpose.
If an employee separates from the College having used unearned sick leave, adjustments will be made in the final paycheck.
At retirement, employees (not faculty) may be eligible to a lump sum payment for a portion of unused, accumulated sick leave up to a maximum of $15,000.
Sick leave may be taken in fifteen (15) minute intervals.
3. ADMINISTRATIVE (PERSONAL) LEAVE
Employees in classified service shall be granted 1/2 days of administrative leave after each full calendar month of employment to a maximum of 3 days. In each calendar year thereafter, 3 administrative leave days will be granted. Administrative leave is not cumulative and can be used only in half-day or full day increments.
Requests for administrative leave of absence must be approved by a supervisor in advance. Priority in granting such requests shall be:
b. observation of religious or other days of celebration, but not public holidays
c. personal business
d. other personal affairs
e. holiday closing
Administrative leave may be taken in conjunction with other types of paid leave.
ADMINISTRATIVE LEAVE MUST BE TAKEN DURING THE YEAR IT IS EARNED.
Administrative leave time is not credited to unclassified employees.
Part-time employees earn a pro-rated portion of leave entitlement. Contact the Department of Human Resources for details.
Absenteeism is costly and disruptive to College operations. The College relies on the good attendance of all employees.
Please follow the procedures for allotted leaves outlined above (i.e., vacation, sick, and personal leave).
Except for emergencies, all absences must be requested in advance and approved by the supervisor. Employees should be guided by their collective bargaining agreements and procedures established within their work unit. Non-emergency absences not requested in advance are considered unauthorized.
Proof of injury or illness may be required when there is reason to believe there is abuse, an employee has been absent for five or more consecutive work days, or an employee has been absent on sick leave for more than an aggregate of more than 15 days in a 12-month period.
Excessive absenteeism may be cause for disciplinary action.
5. UNAUTHORIZED ABSENCE POLICY
Any employee who is absent from duty for five (5) consecutive business days without notice to and approval of his or her supervisor, or who fails to report for duty within five (5) business days after the expiration of any authorized leave, may be subject to dismissal by the College.
LEAVES OF ABSENCE
Eligible employees (generally those employed at Ramapo at least 12 months), may be entitled to 12 weeks of leave (paid or unpaid) to care for a newborn child, an adopted child, an ill family member or personal illness. Pregnancy is treated like any other temporary medical condition requiring a leave of absence. An employee anticipating such a leave should submit a “Request for Leave” form to the supervisor with copies to the Department of Human Resources, accompanied by supporting documents. (Medical records should be directed to the Department of Human Resources only.)
Provisions of the Federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA, 1993) and the New Jersey Family Leave Act, (FLA, 1990) vary. The State Family Leave Act (FLA) provides for leave from employment for 12 weeks in any 24-month period so that the employee may provide care made necessary by reason of the birth of a child of the employee; the placement for adoption of a child with the employee; or the serious health condition of a family member. The Federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) provides for 12 weeks of FMLA in a 12-month period because of the birth of a child or the placement of a child for adoption or foster care; because the employee is needed to care for a child, spouse or parent with a serious health condition; or because the employee’s own serious health condition makes the employee unable to do his or her job. Leave may be taken intermittently or on a reduced leave schedule. Please see Family Leave on the HR web page. FMLA also provides for care for a covered military service member or for managing the affairs while member is on active duty.
Employees may be eligible for temporary disability insurance or family leave insurance for qualifying reasons.
Pregnancy is treated like any other temporary medical condition requiring a leave of absence. The length of time required for the leave is a medical decision determined by the physician. Earned and accumulated vacation and sick time may be applied to the leave, as well as temporary disability insurance and family leave insurance. An employee anticipating such a leave must notify his/her supervisor and should submit to the Department of Human Resources a physician’s certificate indicating the anticipated date of delivery.
3. CHILD CARE
Employees eligible for family leave (described above), may use such unpaid leave for child care purposes. In the event Family Leave entitlement is unavailable, child care may be granted to employees under the same terms and conditions as all other leaves without pay. Employees may also be eligible for family leave insurance.
All tenured faculty members and librarians are eligible if they will have completed six or more years of service as of June 30 prior to the year for which the leave is requested. Sabbatical leaves are granted no more frequently than once every seven years. The Office of Employee Relations will advise eligible faculty and librarians of the submission date for applications and the timetable to complete the process, including Unit and Sabbatical Leave Committee actions. Please see Sabbatical procedures on the Provost website.
See Professional Leaves for Managerial Non-Aligned Non-AFT Policy 615
6. JURY DUTY
Leave is granted with pay when jury duty requires an employee’s absence from assigned duties. Supervisors must be notified and a copy of the subpoena requiring jury duty must be forwarded to the Department of Human Resources in addition to certification of dates served. (This certification should be requested of the Court Clerk by the juror when the duty is completed.)
7. LEAVE TO APPEAR AS A WITNESS
Employees shall be granted time off with pay to appear as a witness or a party before a judicial or administrative body or legislative committee when such appearance is part of the job function. If an employee appears as a witness or a party during his or her normal day off, the employee shall be compensated in accordance with College compensatory time policy. When an appearance before a judicial or administrative body is not part of the job function, the employee shall be granted time off with pay when summoned as a witness in a proceeding to which he or she is not a named party, and shall be granted time off without pay to appear at a proceeding to which he or she is a party. However, an employee is entitled to time off with pay to attend his or her workers’ compensation proceeding.
An employee who enters the military service will be granted a leave of absence without pay for the period of active duty. Any employee who is a member of the Reserve component of the armed forces and is required to participate in annual active duty shall be granted a leave of absence with pay not to exceed 90 days in one year. Employees requesting such leaves must notify supervisors and submit a copy of their military orders to the Department of Human Resources well in advance. A permanent employee who returns from military service is entitled to full vacation allowance for the calendar year of return and for the year preceding, provided the latter can be taken during the year of return.
9. VOLUNTARY FURLOUGH
The purpose of the Voluntary Furlough Program is to reduce salary costs and thereby lessen the need for reductions in the workforce by allowing employees to take time off from work without pay in a calendar year without adversely affecting certain benefits. Voluntary furlough may be taken so long as there is no increase in overtime costs, there is no need to backfill the position, and no loss of anticipated revenue occurs. Voluntary furlough may be used for any purpose except for sick leave, leave without pay due to disability, or to seek or engage in alternative employment. Additional details are available on the New Jersey Division of Pension and Benefits web page, Voluntary Furlough, or in the Benefits Section of the Department of Human Resources, extension 7502.
10. EDUCATIONAL OR PERSONAL LEAVES
Requests for leaves for educational or personal reasons are within the discretion of the College (in some cases subject to New Jersey Civil Service Commission approval). All requests should be submitted to the appropriate supervisors.
11. LEAVES OF ABSENCE WITHOUT PAY MAY NOT EXCEED ONE YEAR unless otherwise prescribed by union contracts, state/federal law, or exceptional circumstances.
12. DONATED LEAVE
An employee may be eligible to receive donated sick or vacation leave if the employee has completed at least one year of continuous service; has exhausted all accrued sick, vacation, compensatory time, and sick leave injury benefits; has not, in the two-year period immediately preceding the employee’s need for donated leave, been disciplined for chronic or excessive absenteeism, chronic or excessive lateness or abuse of leave; and either suffers from a catastrophic health condition or injury, or is needed to provide care to a member of the employee’s immediate family who is suffering from a catastrophic health condition or injury; or requires absence from work due to the donation of an organ. Details are available in the Department of Human Resources, Benefits Office, extension 7502.
13. MODIFIED DUTY
Ramapo College will make every attempt to facilitate an early return to work through modified duty for employees who sustain job-related or non job-related injuries/illness that prevent them from performing the essential functions of their job. Modified duty will only be considered for employees with a temporary impairment and not remain in place beyond 12 weeks. Modified duty may not be available for certain positions based on the nature of the job and the operational needs of the Unit/College.
14. AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
All requests should go to the Benefits Office.
1. EMPLOYEE CATEGORIES
- Unclassified – AFT
- Professional Staff
These employees are governed by the provisions of the AFT contract, and NJSA 18A and Board of Trustee Policy.
- Unclassified – Non-AFT
These employees are not in a bargaining unit and are governed by the provisions of NJSA 18A and Board of Trustee Policy.
These employees are governed by the provisions of NJSA 11A and the New Jersey Administrative Code 4A (New Jersey Civil Service Commission), and either by the CWA contract or IFPTE contract, depending on their titles.
The New Jersey Employer-Employee Relations Act categorizes confidential employees as employees whose functional responsibilities or knowledge in connection with the issues involved in the collective negotiations process would make their membership in any appropriate negotiating unit incompatible with their official duties. Such employees still receive the benefits which accrue to State employees; however, they are ineligible for union representation in contractual processes. Details are available in the Department of Human Resources.
2. PROBATIONARY PERIOD
Classified staff serve a four-month working test period, which can be extended for two months at the discretion of the College, which begins on the date they are appointed from a “certification”, or list, or on the first of employment for non-competitive titles.
Unclassified staff not holding faculty rank serve five years of probationary service leading to consideration for a multi-year contract.
Faculty and librarians must have completed six (6) or five and one-half (5 1/2) years of service by the close of Spring semester prior to submission of an application for reappointment with tenure.
The needs of the College determine whether a position is established as Full-Time or Part-Time. Requests for a change in this status will be considered if they are approved by the unit head, division head, and the Vice President for Administration & Finance and the Administrative Council.
Some positions are ten-month appointments, from September 1 to June 30. Applicable health, dental, and life insurance benefits continue through the summer. Salaries and leave entitlements are pro-rated.
5. CLASSIFIED TO UNCLASSIFIED
When an employee is reclassified or promoted out of a classified career service title to an unclassified title, the employee relinquishes all the rights and privileges of a classified employee.
6. ACTING/INTERIM POSITIONS
For a variety of reasons, including but not limited to sudden resignations, illness, leave of absence, special project, failed search, etc., the President may fill a professional position with a person in an acting or interim capacity. If the position becomes permanent, a search will be initiated. If eligible, the individual holding the acting position can apply for the permanent position.
7. AT-WILL EMPLOYEES
Managers and employees in hourly, temporary positions are at-will employees who can be terminated by the College at any time without notice or severance pay. There are no entitlements to benefits or pay for hours not worked.
Job opportunities at Ramapo College are routinely posted throughout the campus and are on College’s web page at www.ramapojobs.com External vacancies are posted on the Human Resources bulletin board in D building.
Promotional opportunities for classified staff are posted on bulletin boards throughout the College and on the web. For unclassified staff, see “J” above.
Human Resources is committed to ensuring that all employees are classified and compensated fairly, which is why HR requests that any changes in responsibilities be presented to HR prior to the effect of those changes to ensure proper classification and compensation. At any point that there are significant ongoing changes to a position that would warrant a change in classification a review of the position should take place immediately. In addition, each union contract has a clause addressing reclassification and represented employees always have the option to request a review for reclassification.
Requests for reclassification should be discussed with Division Heads prior to submission to the Department of Human Resources. Documentation submitted to the Department of Human Resources should include a cover memorandum outlining how the job has changed, what duties are outside the scope of the current title, and any other pertinent information, including a current job description and organizational chart.
Classified staff may appeal reclassification decisions by contacting the Department of Human Resources which will forward the appeal to the New Jersey Civil Service Commission. Unclassified staff should contact the Department of Human Resources for details regarding appeals to the Position Review Committee.
Procedures for Reclassification for Classified Staff and Reclassification for Unclassified Staff are available on the College’s web page.
Classified staff must take a promotional examination before permanent appointment to a higher title. Details are available in the Department of Human Resources.
Faculty promotion procedures, faculty range adjustments, and performance-based promotions for unclassified staff are administered by the Office of Employee Relations.
Employees interested in transfer opportunities may apply by contacting the Department of Human Resources. Every effort will be made for a smooth transition within a reasonable time frame.
Employees covered by the provisions of the AFT contract should consult it regarding procedures for reassignment.
Employees interested in reassignment are encouraged to consult the Job Opportunities listing on the web page.
The Department of Human Resources will provide verification of any employee’s current and prior employment status to potential creditors or other designated individuals or agencies. Such verifications are usually provided within 48 hours of receipt by the Department of Human Resources.
The Department of Human Resources is the only department authorized to respond to all reference checks or employment verification inquiries on current or former employees. Responses to such inquiries will confirm only dates of employment, salary, and position(s) held. A written authorization and release signed by the individual who is the subject of the inquiry is required. Personal references may be given if requested by a former employee, but it should be made clear it is a personal reference only, and the Department of Human Resources responds to formal reference check inquiries.
Reference and criminal background checks will be conducted for all new hires of regular faculty, staff, adjuncts and coaches, and for other hires at the discretion of the College. Driver’s license checks, and drug and alcohol testing will be conducted for those whose responsibilities include driving. Degree verification will be conducted where applicable.
In accordance with Federal law, all employees must provide proof of identity and employment eligibility at the time of employment.
Information that is falsely reported may be cause for withdrawal of an offer of employment and/or cause for termination of employment.
Some classified titles require a physical exam, performed at a nearby medical facility and paid for by the College.
Notice of resignation should be made in writing and given to supervisors providing reasonable advance notice. Classified staff are required to provide a minimum of 14 days written or verbal notice. Unclassified staff are expected to continue to serve until the completion of the academic year or their term of appointment. The College expects sufficient advance notice of any intended resignation/retirement in order to plan adequately.
Separating employees must contact the Department of Human Resources to arrange for separation processing. All staff who are terminating employment with the College must clear and/or return the following items before terminating:
- Ramapo College Keys to Facilities
- Ramapo College Uniforms to Public Safety
- Ramapo College Library Materials to the Library
- Access Cards/Clickers for Disabled Parking to Public Safety
- Employee I.D. Card to Human Resources
- Loaned Computer Equipment to ITS
- Any Other College Property as appropriate
- You must repay any money due to the College. Any outstanding balances must be paid in full to Business Services prior to your last day of employment.
Network accounts will be disabled. Please be advised that on the first business day following your last day of employment, your network account login will be disabled and you will be unable to access any network drive. This includes e-mail, voice mail, network access, access to drives (“P” and “U”), Employee Self-Service, Library on-line data base, and wireless access. If you wish to retrieve any personal information saved on College electronic resources, you must download it by the end of your last day of employment. You are not authorized to retrieve/download official College business records.
Arrangements must be made by all faculty to submit all grades, with provision for making up any INCOMPLETE or change of grade, and for securing departmental agreement for plans to vacate office space.
Failure to observe all of the above may result in delay in receipt of the final paycheck.
Upon termination of employment employees may be scheduled for an exit interview to discuss the reasons for leaving the College. The purpose of the interview is to evaluate the College’s effectiveness as an employer and to get suggestions for improvement in any area of College life.
Employees may be asked to serve on search and screen, special project, or other committees. The College encourages participation with supervisor’s approval.
Employees should provide reasonable notice to the Department of Human Resources for the opportunity to review and examine their personnel files. Requests for copies will be honored within reason. Additional details are provided in respective bargaining unit contracts. Official personnel files of AFT faculty and unclassified staff are maintained in the Office of Employee Relations.
PUBLIC SAFETY POLICIES AND PRACTICES
This brochure is available in the Public Safety Office and provides a report of any criminal activity on campus. Campus crime statistics in accordance with the requirements of the Clery Act are available by contacting Student Affairs (extension 7456), Public Safety (extension 7432) or by accessing the Public Safety website at https://www.ramapo.edu/publicsafety/
The College is committed to the letter and spirit of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) which is a federal anti-discrimination statute designed to remove barriers which prevent qualified individuals with disabilities from enjoying the same employment opportunities that are available to persons without disabilities. Every reasonable effort will be made to accommodate special needs and the College has set aside funds for this purpose. Requests for accommodation due to medical disability should be referred to the Department of Human Resources. Complaints regarding lack of accommodation should be directed to the Office of Affirmative Action and Workplace Compliance.